Snoring and Sleep Apnea

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Snoring is the noise produced during sleep by vibrations of the soft tissues at the back of your nose and throat . The noise is created by turbulent flow of air through narrowed air passages.[1] Snoring is an indication that there is narrowing of the air passage during sleep. Even in people who do not snore or have OSA, the upper airway collapses during sleep.[2] Snoring happens when incoming air hits the soft palate and uvula and makes them vibrate. Seems simple enough, and it would also seem simple to correct.[3]

Snoring responds to many of the same treatments as OSA . At Mayo Clinic, a team of doctors from several specialties may collaborate to develop the best treatment plan, especially if the snoring is severe and due to anatomical abnormalities.[4] Snoring is a common symptom of obstructive sleep apnea. However, sleep apnea is a serious medical disorder that occurs because the airway is totally obstructed during sleep and breathing completely stops for 10 seconds or more.[5] Snoring is usually caused by conditions that interfere with breathing through the nose, such as a common cold, allergies, or enlarged adenoids. It is more common while sleeping on your back, when the lower jaw tends to drop open.[6]

Snoring can be a sign of a more serious problem, such as sleep apnea. This disorder can cause a person to temporarily stop breathing while at rest, and has been linked to cardiovascular problems and high blood pressure.[7] Snoring had driven a wedge between us. [8] Snoring in the absence of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is termed primary or simple snoring. However, some evidence indicates that snoring is one end of a clinical continuum with an opposite extreme of severe obstructive sleep apnea.[9]

Snoring happens when a person can't move air freely through his or her nose and mouth during sleep. That annoying sound is caused by certain structures in the mouth and throat - the tongue, upper throat, soft palate (say: pa -lut), uvula (say: yoo -vyuh-luh), as well as big tonsils and adenoids - vibrating against each other.[10] Snoring intensity and AHI together, however, could explain only 15 percent of the variance in ESS scores. [11] Snoring is a common symptom of sleep apnea, but snoring by itself does not involve the cessation of breathing. [12]

Snoring of this magnitude can cause several problems, including marital discord, sleep disturbances and waking episodes sometimes caused by one's own snoring. But, snoring does not always equal OSA; sometimes it is only a social inconvenience.[13] Snoring was based on subjective reports, which is a common limitation in epidemiological studies. Subjective reports are, however, the most commonly used instrument for measuring snoring, in part because of the technical problems involved with microphone recordings as well as the ability of subjective reports to give an average of the subject's degree of snoring, whereas the result of a single night's recording may be misleading.[14] Snoring is much more common in overweight men, so try to lose a bit. Even a 10% reduction can reduce neck fat enough to dramatically quieten snoring, and improve health.[15]

Snoring occurs when soft throat tissues vibrate during sleep. Snoreeze Oral Strips are a blend of micro-encapsulated natural oils designed to reduce the vibrations.[16] Snoring occurs when the airway or passage through which we breathe becomes partially blocked or occluded. An example would be a tongue that falls back as we drift off into deeper sleep.[17] Snoring may be an occasional problem, or it may be habitual. [18]

Snoring occurs when the soft palate (the portion of the roof of the mouth that extends toward the back of the throat) vibrates as air is drawn in during a breath. When we go to sleep, the muscles of the tongue, mouth and throat relax.[19] Snoring is caused due to nasal congestion, hereditary, smoking, and obesity. Males are prone to snore because their necks are larger thus they have more tissue in the neck and obstruct airflow which leads to snoring.[20] Snoring is a particularly common discomfort of pregnancy, and unfortunately, it can have serious repercussions on your energy levels and well-being. Here are some tips on how to curb that pregnancy-related snoring and get a better night’s sleep![21]

Snoring is a remarkably common health problem. Nearly half of American adults snore, at least occasionally (allergies, sinus infections), but one in four is a chronic snorer.[22] Snoring can be hard on you. It can create additional health problems.[23] Snoring is another important symptom that your child’s doctor needs to know about, though it often goes unreported. Snoring can be the sign of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) , where there is prolonged partial blocking, or intermittent blocking, of breathing during sleep.[24]

Snoring is relatively common during pregnancy, although no one knows exactly how widespread it is. It tends to be more of a problem in the third trimester.[25] Snoring has a tendency to worsen with age. Forty-five percent of adults snore occasionally, while 25% are considered habitual snorers.[26] Snoring may increase with age. [27]

Snoring is an indication of obstructed breathing. Therefore, it should not be taken lightly.[28] Snoring, like all other sounds, is caused by vibrations that cause particles in the air to form sound waves. For example, when we speak, our vocal cords vibrate to form our voice.[29] Snoring is the sound that occurs when air flow is obstructed in the area where the tongue and upper throat meet the soft palate and uvula. [30]

Snoring can cause others around you to lose much-needed rest. Develop a strategy with your partner that will help you avoid disturbing his or her sleep.[31] Snoring can also indicate serious health concerns including a disorder called sleep apnea. [32] Snoring and obstructive sleep apnea are frequently not treated because the person fails to mention the problem at the time of a medical visit. Additionally, most people with these disorders underestimate the severity of their daytime sleepiness and fatigue.[33]

Snoring may be genetic. Children who snore are almost three times as likely as others to have parents who snore.[34] Snoring itself can have serious medical consequences. The dentists associated with Snoring Isn't Sexy want you to look and feel better and be healthier.[35] Snoring was reported as often or very often among 14 (3.2%) and occasionally by 73 (16.7%). Apneic episodes were reported often or very often among seven (1.6%).[36]

Snoring is a result of incomplete pharyngeal obstruction. Turbulent airflow and subsequent progressive vibratory trauma to the soft tissues of the upper airway are important factors that contribute to the condition.[37]

Nasal obstruction due to new onset of adenoid and/or tonsil hypertrophy in adults can be an initial sign of HIV infection. [38] Nasal stuffiness can sometimes cause snoring. This can be remedied with antihistamines or the use of nasal breathing strips.[39] Nasal inhalers use safe steroids to reduce that inflammation and open up your sinuses to allow air to flow more freely, which should stop your snoring. [40]

Sleep apnea, a condition marked by the cessation of breathing while sleeping, is characterized by long pauses between breaths, irregular breathing and snoring. This sleep disorder is particularly dangerous because during momentary pauses (as long as ten seconds) in breathing, oxygen flow to the brain is cut off.[41] Sleep on your side if possible. Some doctors even suggest sewing a golf or tennis ball into the back of your night clothes.[42] Sleep apnea is often characterized by loud snoring followed by periods of silence that can last 10 seconds or more. Sometimes, complete obstruction does not occur, but rather, while still snoring, the airway becomes so small that the airflow is inadequate for your needs.[43]

Sleep apnea sufferers often have high blood pressure. [44] Sleep apnea is a serious medical condition and should be diagnosed and treated by your doctor. If you are a repeat customer, you are no doubt very disappointed at your inability to resume the normal life that you have grown to appreciate now that snoring no longer afflicts you.[45] Sleep sideways rather than on the back. Consider sewing a pocket on the pajama back to hold a tennis ball.[46]

Sleep deprivation can also compromise the immune system and lead to low energy, decreased productivity and muddled thinking. Chronic snoring can even be a sign of a more serious health problem, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).[47] Sleep disordered breathing is a common problem in the American household. Snoring, for instance, is estimated to occur in over 20% of males and 5% of females by the age of 30.[48] Sleep on your side, not on your back. Sleeping on your back can increase snoring.[49]

Sleep apnea in children has been linked to growth problems, ADHD, poor school performance, learning difficulties, bedwetting, and high blood pressure. Most children who snore do NOT have apnea, but a sleep study is the only reliable way to tell for sure.[50] Sleep apnea, in which the airway becomes blocked or, less often, the brain fails to properly control breathing during sleeping, can be viewed as one extreme of the snoring spectrum. Soft or sporadic snoring, which is not generally considered a health hazard, would be at the other end.[51]

Apnea may also be associated with delayed growth and cardiovascular problems. [52] Apnea patients may experience 30 to 300 such events per night. These episodes can reduce blood oxygen levels, causing the heart to pump harder.[53]

Treatment for obstructive sleep apnea is effective, but not always easy to complete. Obese patients are often instructed to lose weight -- though you don't have to be overweight to develop sleep apnea.[54] Treatment may include eliminating those outside factors that may be playing a role. This may include weight loss, the avoidance of alcohol or other medications, or even the treatment of nasal congestion with medication or nasal dilating strips.[55]

Snorers--and their long-suffering partners--can get desperate for decent night's sleep.  Earplugs aren't always enough; booting the snorer out of the conjugal bed seldom enhances a couple's relationship. Then there's sewing a tennis ball into a T shirt.[58] Snorers become unwelcome roommates on vacations and business trips. Snoring can actually disrupt the sleeping patterns of the snorer, making restful sleep difficult.[59]

OSA is a more extreme problem. In some patients, the uvula and soft palate block the airway, while in other patients, the tongue falls backward, blocking the airway.[60] OSAS is a serious disorder and can become a major risk to one's health, causing significant lung and heart problems over time. [61]

Loud snoring can make it hard for you and your partner to get a good night?s sleep. [71] Loud snoring is often dismissed with humor or with irritation—by those in nocturnal earshot—when in fact the snore deserves the same respect and sympathy as is granted the wheeze of an asthmatic. And unlike most wheezes, heavy snoring is usually accompanied by spurts of dangerously slow or interrupted respiration so that oxygen in the blood drops.[72]

Like LAUP, more than one session may be needed. RFTA is still viewed as a new procedure, and relatively little published data on the procedure are currently available.[78] Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. [79]


Sleep Apnea

Sleep apnea can also cause serious changes in the cardiovascular system. Daytime hypertension (high blood pressure) is common.[1] Sleep Apnea is a progressive condition (gets worse as you age) and should not be taken lightly. [2] Sleep apnea is a disorder characterized by a reduction or cessation (pause of breathing, airflow) during sleep. It is common among adults but rare among children.[3]

Sleep apnea actually may be underdiagnosed in women, particularly older women. In general, older women have the same incidence of sleep apnea as men their own age.[4] Sleep Apnea involves a condition in which a person stops breathing over and over again throughout the night, in many cases, for long periods of time. The side effects of this condition can be fatal.[5] Sleep apnea means "cessation of breath.".It is characterized by repetitive episodes of upper airway obstruction that occur during sleep, usually associated with a reduction in blood oxygen saturation. In other words, the airway becomes obstructed at several possible sites.[6]

Sleep apnea is a period of time during which breathing stops or is markedly reduced. In simplified terms, a sleep apnea occurs when a person stops breathing for 10 seconds or more.[7] Sleep apnea is the most commonly diagnosed condition amongst sleep-related breathing disorders and can lead to debilitating and sometimes fatal consequences for the 18 million Americans who have been diagnosed with the disorder. This study identifies a mechanism behind stroke in these patients.[8] Sleep apnea can also occur if you have large tonsils or adenoids or a large uvula . During the day, when you are awake and standing up, these may not cause problems.[9]

Sleep apnea affects many people. It is a condition where a person stops breathing while sleeping.[10] Sleep apnea is recognized as a problem by others witnessing the individual during episodes or is suspected because of its effects on the body ( sequelae ). Symptoms may be present for years (or even decades) without identification, during which time the sufferer may become conditioned to the daytime sleepiness and fatigue associated with significant levels of sleep disturbance.[11] Sleep apnea is a common disorder in which breathing stops during sleep for 10 seconds or more, sometimes more than 300 times a night. The hallmark of the disorder is excessive daytime sleepiness and compromised quality of life, including significant social and emotional problems.[12]

Sleep apnea can also contribute to car accidents. [13] Sleep apnea is very common, as common as adult diabetes, and affects more than twelve million Americans, according to the National Institutes of Health. Risk factors include being male, overweight, and over the age of forty, but sleep apnea can strike anyone at any age, even children.[14] Sleep apnea may also be characterized by choking sensations. The frequent interruptions of deep, restorative sleep often lead to early morning headaches and excessive daytime sleepiness.[15]

Sleep apnea can cause serious problems if it isn't treated. Your risk of heart disease and stroke is higher if serious sleep apnea goes untreated.[16] Sleep apnea is responsible for job impairment and motor vehicle crashes because of the fatigue and drowsiness that contributes to poor judgment. [17] Sleep apnea can cause symptoms of apparent clinical depression which may respond quickly to treatment of the sleep disorder. A knowledge of the intellectual and emotional impact of sleep apnea may be important in making a correct differential diagnosis.[18]

Sleep apnea is a serious, potentially life-threatening condition that should not be ignored and self-treatment is not recommended. [19] Sleep apnea is more common in people with atrial fibrillation (irregular heartbeat) than in patients with other heart conditions. In a 2005 study published in Circulation , 49% of patients with atrial fibrillation were at risk for developing apnea, compared with 32% of general cardiology patients.[20] Sleep apnea is a disorder in which a person stops breathing during the night, perhaps hundreds of times, usually for periods of 10 seconds or longer and sometimes for as long as a minute. These gaps in breathing are called apneas .[21]

Sleep apnea also appears to put individuals at risk for stroke and transient ischemic attacks (TIAs, also known as “mini-strokes”), and is associated with coronary heart disease, heart failure, irregular heartbeat, heart attack, and high blood pressure. Although there is no cure for sleep apnea, recent studies show that successful treatment can reduce the risk of heart and blood pressure problems.[22] Sleep apnea may result in sudden infant death syndrome, or SIDS. [23] Sleep apnea caused by the incorrect positioning of the jaw may be treated with a device inserted into the mouth or strapped around the head to adjust the jaw’s positioning. Dental devices worn inside the mouth to treat sleep apnea look like athletic mouth guards.[24]

Sleep apnea is now known to be a public health hazard because of accidents due to sleepiness. Moreover, patients often have hypoxemia with each apneic event, and profound and repetitive hypoxia can affect end organ systems.[25]

Individuals with OSA syndrome have pathologic degrees of obstructive apnea, obstructive hypopnea, or both. Severity is quantified using a polysomnographic-derived index known as the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI).[28] Individuals vary normally in their need for, and their satisfaction with, sleep. Insomnia may cause problems during the day, such as tiredness, a lack of energy, difficulty concentrating, and irritability.[29]

CPAP is the best treatment for sleep apnea, but many patients find it uncomfortable and have trouble sticking to the therapy. As an alternative, some patients with mild-to-moderate sleep apnea use mouth guards or tongue splints.[30] CPAP -- which stands for continuous positive airway pressure -- is an effective treatment for sleep apnea. A mask is worn over the nose during sleep while compressed air is gently forced through the nose to keep the airway open.[31] CPAP is the gold standard treatment for sleep apnea. We have prepared an in depth article about Sleep Apnea which covers the history, types and treatment options relating to the disease.[32]

CPAP treatment is used in most patients who have obstructive sleep apnea. With CPAP, the patient wears a snugly fitting nasal mask attached to a fan that blows air into the nostrils to keep the airway open during sleep ( Figure 9 ).[33] CPAP is more effective than oral appliances, but oral appliances may be easier for you to use. Some are designed to open your throat by bringing your jaw forward, which can sometimes relieve snoring and mild obstructive sleep apnea.[34] CPAP is effective on 95% of the patient with obstructive sleep apnea. The units are reliable, quiet and efficient and come in a variety of sizes and shapes.[35]

CPAP is effective on 95% of the patient with OSA. The pressure acts much in the same way as a splint, holding the airway open.[36]

Obstructive sleep apnea is not a benign disease. Bonekat (1990) estimated that in 1990 alone, 58,000 motor vehicle accidents involved a sleep apnea patient.[37] Obstructive sleep apnea affects more than 20 million Americans and can lead to hypertension , heart attack, stroke, depression, muscle pain, fibromyalgia , morning headaches, and excessive daytime sleepiness. Most people with mild sleep apnea are aware that they snore and feel overtired or fatigued but are unaware of potentially serious medical problems which may exist.[38] Obstructive sleep apnea affects 2 percent of children and has made headlines in recent years because it's more common in obese youth. Still, experts say, it's often overlooked by doctors.[39]

Obstructive sleep apnea primarily strikes overweight men. Female hormones and a different throat anatomy may protect women until menopause.[40] Obstructive sleep apnea can be a complex condition. The Pillar Procedure can be an effective first step in your journey to a better night's sleep.[41] Obstructive sleep apnea causes your body to stop breathing during sleep. It occurs when the tissue in the back of the throat collapses and blocks the airway.[42]

Obstructive sleep apnea poses a threat to your life and has been clinically identified to produce morbid consequences to your body such as obesity, hypertension, heart attack, stroke, diabetes, depression, dementia and unexplained sudden death. Science has dramatically proven that life ceases to exist within four days without water and two weeks without sleep.[43]

Central apnea occurs when the part of the brain that controls breathing doesn't start or properly maintain the breathing process. In very premature infants, it's seen fairly commonly because the respiratory center in the brain is immature.[45] Central sleep apnea usually occurs in people who are seriously ill. For example, it can occur in people with a variety of severe and life-threatening lower brain stem lesions.[46] Central sleep apnea is caused by a problem with the nerves that control breathing. In some cases a mixture of both types of sleep apnea may occur.[47]

Central sleep apnea (CSA), less common than OSA, is a central nervous system disorder that occurs when the brain signal telling the body to breathe is delayed. CSA can be caused by disease or injury involving the brainstem, such as a stroke, a brain tumor, a viral brain infection, or a chronic respiratory disease.[48]

Oxygen administration may safely benefit certain patients but does not eliminate sleep apnea or prevent daytime sleepiness. Thus, the role of oxygen in the treatment of sleep apnea is controversial, and it is difficult to predict which patients will respond well.[51] Oxygen is a controversial treatment and it doesn't eliminate sleep apnea or daytime sleepiness and in not used to treat patients with obstructive sleep apnea. [52]

Tonsils and adenoids may grow to be large relative to the size of a child's airway (passages through the nose and mouth to the windpipe and lungs). Inflamed and infected glands may grow to be larger than normal, thus causing more blockage.[53] Tonsil and adenoid removal is frequently performed to treat chronic tonsillitis and recurring infection. But obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is now the most common reason children have tonsil and adenoid surgery.[54]

Nasal obstruction, a large tongue , a narrow airway and certain shapes of the palate and jaw seem also to increase the risk. A large neck or collar size is strongly associated with obstructive sleep apnea.[55] Nasal pillows ("Adam circuit" is another name for the same thing) refers to a different method of delivering air with a CPAP machine. Basically, these are nose plugs that you use in place of a traditional mask over your nose (you still connect it to the hose to CPAP machine, like a mask).[56]

Children are much more likely to have their tonsils and adenoids removed to solve the problem. [58] Children born with other medical conditions, such as Down syndrome, cerebral palsy, or craniofacial (skull and face) abnormalities, are at higher risk for sleep apnea. Children with these conditions may need additional treatments.[59] Children who have sleep apnea nearly always snore. But they may not appear to be excessively sleepy during the day (a key symptom in adults).[60]

Patients biased toward more time supine during the initial polysomnography; no trends in time supine for in-home studies were noted. [62] Patients may also have episodes of hypopnea, when breathing doesn’t stop, but airflow is greatly reduced. SLEEP APNEA is diagnosed when a patient experiences 5 to 15 documented episodes of apnea-hypopnea/hour.[63]

Standing from a squatting position lowers blood pressure as can be experienced during normal daily activity. They also monitored the participants as they slept.[67] Standing from a squatting position lowers blood pressure as can be experienced during normal daily activity. They also monitored the participants as they slept.[68]